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  • Well, you wouldn't ask her to marry your mother as well as you, Mrs. Morel smiled. And no military figure or politician is about to remind them.
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    Maybe I'll get to see Mantle hit one out before they toss me, I said as I picked up my books and walked past him into the bar. In 728, a young famdhi trained but not perfected in medical arts had failed to cure a Giladan master weaver.

    They knew the risks they were taking in getting involved with the Danteri and taking them up on their offer of a new Thallonian Empire. Nie po to, by zna godzin , kupi em go w Turenii.

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    UNIX History

    August 17th, 2008

    UNIX is developed in 1969 in the University of Berkley with name BSD UNIX, since then in number of UNIX flavors had introduced in commercial and government organizations.

    But if you see the availability in today’s market, there are few popular flavors available. It is amazing that different platforms of hardware supported different flavors of UNIX .

    For Example;

    1. HP has its proprietary version of UNIX called as HP-UX operating system work only on HP machines.

    2. IBM has its own version for there hardware which is known as AIX UNIX

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    Quilp reached Tower Hill, when, gazing up at the window of his own sitting-room, he thought he descried more light than is usual in a house of mourning. We already had strong support from some important members of Congress, especially Senators Lugar, Biden, and Lieberman.
    3. Of course there is another big name is called SUN Systems, that have SUN SOLARIS UNIX flavor for there SUN Spark machines

    4. SCO UNIX is one of the popular UNIX for the Intel based PCs

    5. There was also a famous UNIX called TRUE64 UNIX form the digital systems But digital system does not exist any more cause it is taken over by COMPAQ and then HP itself and HP supports both HP-UX UNIX and TRUE64-UNIX

    As I mention earlier in number of flavors of UNIX available in the market, the scope of this article is not to discuss whole history instead focus on to teach important tasks to the beginners.

    UNIX Features - From another author

    January 19th, 2008

    Main Features of UNIX

    multi-user
    more than one user can use the machine at a time supported via terminals (serial or network connection)

    multi-tasking
    more than one program can be run at a time

    hierarchical directory structure
    to support the organization and maintenance of files

    portability
    only the kernel ( <10%) written in assembler tools for program development a wide range of support tools (debuggers, compilers)

    The UNIX Operating System
    Consists of

  • kernel
  • schedules tasks
    manages data/file access and storage
    enforces security mechanisms
    performs all hardware access

  • shell
  • presents each user with a prompt
    interprets commands types by a user
    executes user commands
    supports a custom environment for each user

  • utilities
  • file management (rm, cat, ls, rmdir, mkdir)
    user management (passwd, chmod, chgrp)
    process management (kill, ps)
    printing (lpr)

    ——————————————————————————–

    Multi-User Operating Systems
    A multi-user operating system allows more than one user to share the same computer system at the same time. It does this by time-slicing the computer processor at regular intervals between the various users.

    In the example, there are five users which share the processor hardware and main memory on a time basis.

    We start off by giving the first user (which we will call Sophia) the processor hardware, and run Sophia’s program for 1/5th of a second. When the time is up, we intervene, save Sophia’s program state (program code and data) and then start running the second users program (for 1/5th of a second).

    This process continues till we eventually get back to user Sophia. To continue running Sophia’s program, we restore the programs code and data and then run for 1/5th of a second.

    This switching between user programs is done by part of the kernel. To switch from one program to another requires,

  • a regular timed interrupt event (provided by a clock)
  • saving the interrupted programs state and data
  • restoring the next programs state and data
  • running that program till the next timed interrupt occurs
  • Main system memory is divided into portions for the operating system and user programs.

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    Kernel

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  • As you can see in the above diagram, the kernel space is kept separate from user programs.

    In UNIX systems, each user is presented with a shell. This is a program which displays the users prompt, handles user input and displays output on the terminal. The shell program provides a mechanism for customizing each user’s setup requirements, and storing this information for re-use (in a file called .profile).

    When the UNIX system starts up, it also starts a system process which monitors the state of each terminal input line. Whenever a user logs in and their password is validated the UNIX system associates the shell program with that terminal.

    ——————————————————————————–
    Multi-Tasking Operating Systems
    Multi-tasking operating systems permit the use of more than one program to run at once. It does this in the same way as a multi-user system, by rapidly switching the processor between the various programs.

    OS/2 and Windows 95 are examples of multi-tasking single-user operating system. UNIX is an example of a multi-tasking multi-user operating system.

    A multi-user system is also a multi-tasking system. This means that a user can run more than one program at once, using key selection to switch between them.

    Multi-tasking systems support foreground and background tasks. A foreground task is one that the user interacts directly with using the keyboard and screen. A background task is one that runs in the background (it does not have access to the keyboard). Background tasks are usually used for printing or backups.

    The role of the operating system is to keep track of all the programs, allocating resources like disks, memory and printer queues as required

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  • UNIT 1 Theoretical Concepts of UNIX Operating System

    January 19th, 2008

    Objectives
    After going through this unit you will be able to:

  • List the basic features of UNIX operating system
  • Describe UNIX file structure
  • Discuss CPU scheduling in UNIX system
  • Discuss memory management schemes in UNIX
  • Discuss file systems in UNIX operating system
  • BASIC FEATURES OF UNIX OPERATING SYSTEM

  • It is written in high-level language, ‘C’ making it easy to port to different configurations,
  • It is a good operating system, especially, for programs; UNIX programming environment is unusually rich and productive. It provides features that allow complex programs to be built from simpler programs.
  • It uses a hierarchical file system that allows easy maintenance and efficient implementation.
  • It uses a consistent format for files, the byte stream, making application programs easier to write.
  • It is a multi-user, multi-process system. Each user can execute several processes simultaneously.
  • It hides the machines architecture from the user, making it easier to write programs that run on different hardware implementation.
  • more…>

    UNIX System Architecture

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  • As do most computer system, UNIX consists of two separable parts: the kernel and System programs. We can view the UNIX operating system as being layered as shown in figure1

    Everything below the system call interface and above the physical hardware is the Kernel.
    The Kernel provides the file system, CPU Scheduling, memory management and other operating system functions through system calls.

    Programs such as shell(Sh) and editors (vi) shown in the top layer interact with the Kernel by involving a well defined set of system calls. The system call instructs the Kernel to do various operations of the calling programs and exchange data between the Kernel and the program.

    System call for UNIX can be roughly grouped into three categories: file manipulation, process control and information manipulation. Another category can be considered for device manipulation, but, since devices in UNIX are treated as (special) files, the same system call support both files and devices.

    1.3 FILE STRUCTURE

    A file in UNIX is sequence of bytes. Different programs expect various levels of structures, but the kernel does not impose any structure on files and no meaning is attached to its contents. The meaning of the bytes depends solely on the programs that interpret the file.

    This is not true if just disc files but of peripheral devices as well, Magnetic tapes, mail messages, character types on the keyboard, line printer output, data flowing in pipes - each of these is just a sequence of bytes as far as the system and the programs in it are concerned.

    Files are organized in tree-structured directories. Directories are themselves files that contain information on how to find other files. A path name to file is a text string that identifies a file by specifying a path through the directory structure to the file. Syntactically it contains of individual file name elements separated by the slash character, for example in /usr/hello/data, the first slash indicates the root of the directory tree, called the root directory. The next element, usr, is a subdirectory of the root, hello is a subdirectory of usr and data is a file or directory in the directory hello.